Abstract: Transfusion-associated microchimerism (TA-MC) is the stable persistence of an allogeneic cell population, resulting from allogeneic blood transfusion (often resulting after trauma). Currently TA-MC is not completely understood, needing further study to reveal its underlying mechanism. This article reviews the immune tolerance mechanism of TA-MC; factors which lead to the appearance of TA-MC; clinical implications of microchimerism; and the latest diagnostic methods of TA-MC.
Abstract: The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is the cellular environment in which tumors exist. This includes: surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules, immune checkpoint proteins and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The TIME plays a critical role in cancer progression and regulation. Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. The molecules and cells in the TIME influence disease outcome by altering the balance of suppressive versus cytotoxic responses in the vicinity of the tumor. Having a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment will pave the way for identifying new targets for immunotherapies that promote cancer elimination.
Abstract: Formyl peptide receptor 2-lipoxin receptor (FPR2/ALX) and its agonists are well-defined mechanisms in antiinflammatory and pro-resolving response, and neutrophils actively participate in inflammation. However, FPR2/ALX expression in neutrophils and the effects of FPR2/ALX agonist in autophagy of neutrophils under inflammatory circumstances are not fully understood. In this study, flow cytometric analysis and real-time PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of FPR2/ALX in neutrophils in healthy volunteers and septic patients. The effects of FPR2/ALX agonist BML-111 alone or with pro-inflammatory stimulant in neutrophils were assessed by Western blot. The results showed that both protein and mRNA expression of FPR2/ALX in neutrophils in patients with sepsis were significantly increased compared with that in healthy subjects (P<0.05). PMA promoted the conversion of LC3- Ⅰ to LC3- Ⅱ in neutrophils, a key marker of autophagy. BML-111 alone had no effect on autophagy in neutrophils. Nevertheless, BML-111 reduced PMA-induced LC3 processing in neutrophils. Our results indicated that FPR2/ALX expression increased in neutrophils in septic patients. FPR2/ALX agonist BML-111 reduced LC3 processing in neutrophils with pro-inflammatory stimulation. These findings demonstrated a novel effect of FPR2/ALX activation in regulating autophagy.
Abstract: The thalassemia has become a sensitive issue for clinical and public health owing to the morbidity and mortality caused and potential risks associated with multiple transfusions. Here, a blood bank based cross sectional analytical study was carried out during the period of three months from January 2017 to March 2017, among transfusion dependent beta thalassemia major patients. ABO-Rh(D) blood grouping and screening for unexpected red cell antibodies (other than anti-A and anti-B antibodies) were performed on a Immucor Galileo Neo System (fully automated immunohematology analyzer). Out of 56 patients, 37 (66%) were males and 19 (34%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.95:1. Two cases (3.6%) were detected positive by antibody screening. Alloimmunization was statistically analyzed on the basis of age, sex and subjects' ABO-Rh blood group. This study underlines the need for unexpected antibody screening among thalassemic patients receiving blood transfusion therapy.
Abstract: The research was undertaken to study the phenotypic polymorphisms of the subgroup A2, blood groups MNS, P, and Kell in the Kazakh population in northern Xinjiang, China and establish data on rare blood group antigens in the Kazakh population, in order to provide references for clinical blood transfusion safety and prevention of hemolytic disease of the new born. In this study, 6,862 unrelated Kazakh individuals in northern Xinjiang were randomly selected, and their blood samples were collected for serological testing. The antigens of A, B, A1, M, N, P1 and K were detected by serological saline tube method, and the antigens of S, s, and k were detected by the microcolumn gel antiglobulin card method. The results were as follows: ① The detection rates of subgroup A2 in group A and group AB were 7.08% and 21.79%, respectively; ② The allele frequencies of the blood groups MNS, P and Kell were M=0.5668, N=0.4332, S=0.1860, s= 0.8140, P1=0.2848, P2=0.7152, K1=0.0096, K2=0.9904. The observed values and expected values of frequency distribution of genotypes were compared by χ2 test, which conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg genetic law (P>0.05); ③ Fourteen cases of S-s- rare phenotype were detected in MNS blood group system, with a frequency of 1.16%; ④ The frequency of K antigen in the Kell blood group system was 1.92%. One case of rare KK homozygote was detected, with a frequency of 0.034%. Our study suggested that the distribution of gene frequency of subgroup A2, blood groups MNS, P and Kell in the Kazakh population in northern Xinjiang has its own characteristics, and their blood group MNS has unique genotypes. The positive rate of K antigen of blood group Kell in the Kazakh population was significantly higher than Chinese Han population.
Abstract: Morphea is a disorder limited to the skin, characterized by a stable oval plaque with a glossy plane surface that feels indurated on palpation. In contrast, systemic sclerosis is additionally characterized by disseminate cutaneous engrossment, sclerodactyly, the presence of Raynaud's phenomenon, and internal organ involvement. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 class Ⅱ alleles are associated with morphea in Caucasians, whereas, HLA-DR4 presents as high frequency in Amerindians, besides it was associated with autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-DR alleles in Mexican patients with morphea. This study recruited 24 morphea patients, whose HLA alleles frequencies were compared with HLA alleles frequencies presented in 22 systemic sclerosis patients and 99 ethnically matched healthy controls. The HLA-DRβ1 locus was genotyped based on the hybridization technique. HLA-DR4 and DR8 frequencies showed increases in morphea patients compared with healthy controls, whereas HLA-DR4 exhibited a statistical association with morphea when allele frequencies were compared with systemic sclerosis patients. Thus, HLA-DRβ1 associations varied in morphea and systemic sclerosis, suggesting the participation of different immunological molecular mechanisms.
Abstract: In order to verify the performance of the nucleic acid test (NAT) system, the precision and accuracy of the Hamilton STAR pipetting instrument in both single and pool modes were evaluated using pure water simulated for pipetting. The sensitivity, repeatability, anti-interference and anti-contamination ability of the NAT system (Roche Cobas s201) were evaluated using standard serum diluted to different concentrations. The results showed the precisions of the STAR instrument in single and pool modes were 0.07% and 0.09%, respectively, at the accuracies of 3.33% and 5.66%. The sensitivity coincidence rate of Roche Cobas s201 was 100% at the concentration of 3×LoD (Limit of Detection). The amplification was inhibited at the concentration of 2×LoD for the HBV DNA and HCV RNA when the concentration of hemolysis was greater than 7.5%. Lipemia had no effect, and the anticontamination ability was good. The detection rate in the single mode was higher than the pool mode (t=214.3156, P<0.01). This report suggests that the performance of the NAT system is adequate for laboratory purposes.
Abstract: HMP19 is a neuron-specific gene; its expression product belongs to a family of neuronal proteins which can be found in numerous kinds of human cancers. However, the clinicopathological significance of HMP19 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is as yet unknown. In this study, protein expression levels of HMP19 in cancerous tissues were determined by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC) (n = 117). HMP19 protein levels in cancer tissues were associated with clinical characteristics and overall survival rates of patients with EOC. It was found that both mRNA and protein levels of HMP19 were significantly lower in EOC than those in normal ovary or fallopian tube tissues (P<0.05). The protein expression level of HMP19 was significantly associated with a lower FIGO stage, a lower level of CA-125 and a lower presence of metastasis. Consistent with related adverse clinical pathological features, the overall survival (OS) rate of patients with low or non HMP19-expressing tumors was inferior compared to those with high HMP19-expressing tumors. This is in accordance with further studies that found high HMP19 protein level to be an independent prognostic factor for OS in EOC. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor patients with low HMP19 expression had an exceedingly
Abstract: poor OS. HMP19 plays a role in metastasis/tumor suppression and offers a prognostic value for EOC. HMP19, as a new inhibitor, strongly inhibits metastasis and partially attenuates tumor growth in EOC.
Abstract: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ⅱ alleles are involved in antigen processing and presentation to Tlymphocytes during fungal infections. However, few studies have investigated HLA genes in fungal diseases, or in sporotrichosis infections. Here, the frequencies of HLA-DRβ1 in 50 healthy volunteers and 9 patients with sporotrichosis from an endemic area in Mexico were determined to define their role in genetic susceptibility to this infection. Also, the frequencies of HLA-DRβ1 haplotypes were compared with a historic control group of healthy Mexican individuals. The patients presented that DR4 and DR8 increased, which were more than twice the control's values, whereas local controls (endemic area) presented DR*04:01 increased, compared with the control group from Mexico City. The data suggest that involvement of HLA antigens could affect the outcomes of the host-fungi interaction in sporotrichosis by regulating the immune response to Sporothrix schenckii complex.