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Review Article
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Abstract:
Accumulating research has revealed that erythrocytes play unique roles in the innate immune system. Once thought of as immunologically inert cells, erythrocytes are functional cells that exert diverse immunological effects. Although mature mammal erythrocytes lack internal organelles, they express various receptors, which provide an extraordinary ability for erythrocytes to clear or sequester circulating molecules that affect immune functions. In this review, we elucidate some crucial immunological molecules associated with erythrocytes, such as CR1, CD47, TLR9, and cytokines. CR1 acts as a bridge in clearing off immune complexes and an entrance gate for some pathogens. CD47, once bound to SIRPα, generates an inhibitory signal in macrophage phagocytosis. Reciprocally, erythrocyte CD47 undergoes a conformational change during oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence, subsequently activating phagocytic signals through binding to TSP-1. TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG-DNA present in viruses and bacteria. Erythrocyte TLR9 also binds to and eliminates mitochondrial DNA. Erythrocytes can recruit chemokines and modulate plasma chemokine levels through the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). Moreover, erythrocytes may exert immune functions by releasing danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), i.e., heme, IL-33, ATP, and Hsp70. Heme bound with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has the potential to trigger an inflammatory response. Similarly, IL-33, ATP, and Hsp70 from damaged erythrocytes may be involved in the innate immune response via diverse signaling mechanisms. This review provides novel insight into the immunological functions of erythrocytes, which play an irreplaceable role in innate immune responses. We argue that erythrocyte-involved immune function is a widespread area warranting intensive investigation.
Abstract:
Clinical platelet infusion is primarily used to prevent or stop bleeding, but can also have a role in treating infections or promoting wound healing. The demand for platelets has increased in recent years. However, as platelets can only be stored for short periods, there is a substantial loss due to the products reaching their expiry date. Platelet lyophilization is a particularly valuable and important research field. The purpose of studying the freeze-drying preservation of platelets is to realize the long-term preservation of platelets at room temperature. It is very possible to prepare qualified freeze-dried platelets. However, there are still problems that have not been solved in the process of platelet lyophilization. This review mainly summarizes research progress in the preparation and application of freeze-dried platelets.
Abstract:
Blood collection and preparation is a relatively open operation in a conventional environment, and is vulnerable to be contaminated by various types of airborne pathogenic microorganisms. It is important to establish stable and effective air disinfection methods for all types of environments in blood transfusion services, in order to control air hygiene quality and thus reduce the probability of contamination during blood collection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of commonly used chemical and physical air disinfection methods and their application status. It is suggested that over-reliance on chemical reagents and disinfection facilities be reduced, so that better results can be achieved with the combination of multiple disinfection methods and dynamic air hygiene monitoring.
Original Article
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Abstract:
Beyond their seminal role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets (PLTs) are now acknowledged as having multiple roles in the host's defense against infection. PLTs are proven to exert antimicrobial functions in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. However, different species of bacteria interact with PLTs differentially. Data concerning the interaction between PLTs and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), the major prevalent species of nosocomial pathogens, and their related mechanisms are limited. In this study, the direct effects of PLTs on the metabolism and proliferation of S. epidermidis were evaluated. The PLTs from peripheral blood were purified and washed. The PLTs were found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of S. epidermidis when they were cocultured in vitro. Moreover, qRT-PCR showed that the expression of G6PD of the bacteria, a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, had been down-regulated signally. When the products (GDL, IMP) of the phosphate pentose pathway (PPP) were added to the culture, the antibacterial effect of PLTs was alleviated. This study suggests that PLTs can directly inhibit the proliferation of S. epidermidis and regulate their glucose metabolism, which may play an important role in their direct antimicrobial functions.
Abstract:
To investigate the serological phenotypic characteristics and possible mechanism of subgroup A3, a blood donor's ABO phenotypes were detected by the conventional microcolumn gel method and classic tube method. N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase activity was detected by the non-radioactive phosphate coupling method. ABO subtype genotyping was determined by PCR-SSP and exons 1-7 of ABO gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The donor's blood type was subgroup A3 as evaluated by serological test. There was no N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase activity in the red blood cells and weak N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase activity in the plasma. The ABO blood group genotyping result was ABO*AO1, and the gene sequencing result was confirmed as A221/O01. Sequencing results showed two mutations, 467C>T and 607G>A in exon 7 in ABO*A allele. In conclusion, it is suggested that the ABO blood group of the donor be subgroup A3, which may be induced by mutations 467C>T and 607G>A, and led to a decrease in N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase activity and resulted in weakened A antigen.
Abstract:
This paper aims to analyze dynamic changes in platelet-related indicators and their associations with clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. 220 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command the PLA from January 21, 2020 to March 25, 2020, were enrolled. These patients were firstly divided into non-severe and severe groups in accordance with disease severity on admission. The patients of the severe group were further divided into survivors and non-survivors according to whether the patient was discharged or deceased. The results demonstrated that IL-6 had negative correlations with PLT (R=−0.318, P<0.001) and PCT (R=−0.323, P<0.001). However, no significant correlations or only weak correlations were found between the platelet-related parameters (PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, and P-LCR) and other indexes of coagulation and inflammation (PT, APTT, FIB, D-D, and CRP). The dynamic changes of platelet-related parameters in non-severe patients and survivors during hospitalization showed very similar trends and changing rules, while those in the non-survivor group were considerably different. After adjusting for demographic variables and coexisting disorders, the patients with nadir platelet counts of (100–150), (50–100), and (0–50), respectively, possessed a significantly increased risk of mortality [(OR=1.81, 95% CI, 0.2–16.44, P>0.05), (OR=9.91, 95% CI, 1.36–72.2, P<0.05), and (OR=53.81, 95% CI, 5.85–495.22, P<0.001)] with (150–) as the reference. This study suggests that changing trends of the platelet-related parameterrs during hospitalization especially in the first week after admission, are of great significance for predicting clinical outcomes.
Abstract:
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a high degree of malignancy and poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ATC through biometric analysis technology, clarify potential interactions between them, and screen genes related to the prognosis of ATC. Using obtained DEGs, Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Protein-protein interaction (PPI), and survival analysis were performed. After R integration analysis of the four datasets, 764 DEGs were obtained, i.e., 314 upregulated genes and 450 downregulated genes. Among the hub DEGs obtained from the PPI network, the expression levels of TYMS, FN1, CHRDL1, SDC2, ITGA2, COL1A1, COL9A3, and COL23A1 were associated with ATC prognosis. These results showed that the recurrence-free survival (RFS) of ATC was associated with TYMS, FN1, ITGA2, COL23A1, SDC2, and CHRDL1 statistically significantly in the KM plotter (P<0.05). Thus, the study suggests that TYMS, FN1, ITGA2, COL23A1, SDC2, and CHRDL1 may be used as potential biomarkers of ATC. These findings provide new insights for the detection of novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for ATC.
Abstract:
Hybridoma cells are featured by the effective utilization of both B lymphocytes and immortalized myeloma cells, allowing for the continuous generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to antigens. With regard to conventional hybridoma technology, B lymphocytes must be fused with myeloma cells using various methods to generate hybridoma cells. Nutrition plays an important role in hybridoma cell survival and amplification, which determines the fusion effect and antibody production. Here we compared the growth and survival rates of hybridoma in a commonly used peritoneal macrophage feeder layer (PMFL) nutrition supply system with a commercial hybridoma feeder additive (HFA) nutrition supply system at the post fusion stage and discussed the titer of monoclonal antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results indicate that commercially available HFA promotes the survival and amplification of hybridoma clones and improves the titer of monoclonal antibodies indirectly.
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